The rise of digitalisation of trade in the last decades has created a completely new landscape in the field of economic and commercial relations among countries and it calls for an update of the existing rules on trade. In particular, the last phase of the development of international trade has been fostered by digitalisation processes and has produced an increase in supply of goods and services across the borders. The movement of data around the globe is at the core of such developments, as it provides new means of sharing information, reducing costs and foster competitiveness of companies (including small and medium enterprises). Some have claimed that through data flows, globalisation has entered a new era in which digital platforms may create more efficient and transparent global markets. In this context, data flows are also the major enabler of the creation of big data sets, raising numerous questions as far as privacy and consumer protection are concerned. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has highlighted the connection between data collection throughout transmissions and the capacity to build and analyses huge amount of data, while warning against a number of challenges arising from these processes, especially in terms of heterogeneity and incompleteness in the construction of big data sets and of privacy protection in the processing of data.
Alberto Oddenino is Professor of International Law at the Department of Law, University of Torino, among the others he is member of: PhD Board (Law and Institutions), Department of Law, University of Torino; Steering Committee of the Master of Laws Comparative Law, Economics and Finance (University of Torino, University of Eastern Piedmont, International University College, Carlo Alberto College); Scientific Board of CIDOIE (Centro Interdipartimentale per il Diritto delle Organizzazioni Internazionali Economiche); Scientific Committee of Interdepartmental Centre ICXT (ICT e Innovazione per Società e Territorio), University of Torino; International Institute of Humanitarian Law; Scientific Committee of the Master of Laws in International Trade Law (ITC-ILO and University of Turin). His recent research focuses on cross-border data flows from a legal perspective. The role of sovereignty and data localization, as many countries have started to introduce measures to restrict such flows for the need to protect their citizens’ privacy or for cybersecurity reasons.